2009: European Year for Creativity
The subject of Eurovisioni: “From Utility to Beauty”
IULM University Foundation Secretary General, co-author of the “White paper on creativity”, already Eurovisioni President, member of the Consiglio superiore delle Comunicazioni
Subject: the research approach to the definition model and governance of creativity in Italy and Europe.
The European Year for creativity and innovation (EYCI) has been launched to “ raise the awareness of the importance of creativity and innovation, key skills for personal, social and economic development”.
Ø 80 scheduled European event
Ø 125 scheduled national among member countries
We don’t know, actually, which is the synthesis approach adopted to create new policies in this sector, apart from promotion of “events”.
In Italy the inter-institutional cooperation for initiatives involved different domains, first of all Education (Schools, Universities and Research), Employment, Cultural Assets and Activities, Innovation. To understand the real weigh of the governance problem in the sector, we should consider also Economic Development (where we find special departments that deal with creativity) and the competences belonging to local governances.
The commission of analysis and proposals, aimed at developing an “Italian model”, has been established at the end of 2007 at the Italian Ministry for Cultural Activities by the Minister Francesco Rutelli (President the Professor Santagata, coordinator Professor Rolando, eleven members among them professors and experts of the Ministry, further to local experts that contributed to the drafting of the text submitted in the 2008, now published by the Bocconi University Editore, as “White Paper on Creativity”. One of the most important reasons at the base of the launch of the research project was the willingness to change the name of the Ministry “Ministero della cultura e della creatività” (Ministry for Cultural Activities and Creativity” (an ancient battle, difficult to carry on).
The synthesis of the Ministry report was : the value of “beauty and useful”. A sociological parameter (the beauty) and the economic parameter (the useful), joint to define the profile of a process, a culture and a market system. Which is the value of creativity in the European area? It impacts on innovation, economic value, local brand and social quality.
There two main research approaches: on the territories (santagata), on professional profiles (Florida).
The Italian outlook has an industrial profile, focused on sectors (also bearing in mind the so called creative classes). The considered sectors (in three groups) are: material culture (Fashion – Design), contents industries (cinema – software – publishing – advertisement and communication) cultural and artistic heritage (cultural heritage – architecture – music and show business – contemporary art).
This is a macroeconomic sector which still presents some statistical problems (not defined areas, areas links one to another, areas difficult to estimate and so on).
The three categories indicate, for each sector, a series of values to indicate (this means an added value between creation, production and distribution), taking into account also the linked industrial sector.
For the first time we reach a datum: in Italy 116 billions euors an 2 million 871 thousand workers, equal to 9,33% on GDP an to 11,87% on employment (statistical estimate 2006).
The area of material culture, i.e. fashion, design and taste ( the latest one considered only by Italians) it’s the most influential.
The 9,33% of the GDP its constituted by 4,46% of creation and production and less than 3% is constituted by related activities, 2% the distribution.
Analysis. The 4.46% on GDP (creation/production) involves creation areas in cultural industries. The creation sectors in the transport in equivalent to a little more than 1%, in the energetic sector is more than 2%, in the tlc 2,3%. On the contrary, in the financial activities is 4,7%, in the building sector 5,8% and in the transport and communication 7,7%.
In the latest years, different reports have been published on the evaluation of the sector in Europe and in the world.
Different methods, different parameters, different sectors. So, today, not comparable. The statistical reset should be accomplished by the European Year, but at the same time we have no information on this subject.
In 2004 in the UK the creative industries have been estimated 7,3% of the GDP with 1 million employees and with software and publishing as main sectors.
In France, in 2003, the cultural industries have been estimated with 256.000 employees but we don’t have the GDP data at our disposal. KEA estimated, in 2004, the creative area in Europe (25 countries) with 5.885.000 employees (3,1%) and an impact on the GDP from 0,6% of Malta to 3,4% of France.
The Italian approach is the last, wider than the others (12 sectors) estimating data with a strong impact.
We need to begin a common European methodological reflection.
Radio, tv, cinema are the most involved in all the approaches.
Conclusions. Same problems for Italy and Europe.
- We are living the first phase for the identification of the economical dimension of creativity
- This approach could be ameliorated if we urge institutions and associations
- It’s important to reorganise the educational system, on tha base of the creative approach of industries
- It’s very important the coordination problem
- Step up project, on the base of USA and East competitiveness
- The Italian report is completed by a proposal based on 54 governance measures focused on institutions, also educational ones and associations.